Introduction to ore forming processes
Steel - Forming and casting: The early metals shapers, the smiths, used hand tools to form iron into finished shapes. Essentially, these consisted of tongs for holding the metal on an anvil and a hammer for beating it. Converting an iron bloom into a wrought-iron bar required considerable hammering. Water-driven hammers were in use by the 15th century in Germany, but heavy hammers capable of. Metallurgy, art and science of extracting metals from their ores and modifying the metals for use. Metallurgy customarily refers to commercial as opposed to laboratory methods. It also concerns the chemical, physical, and atomic properties and structures of metals and the principles whereby metals are combined to form alloys. The so-called `mesothermal' gold deposits occupy a consistent spatial/temporal position (), having formed during deformational processes at convergent plate margins (orogeny) irrespective of whether they are hosted in Archaean or Proterozic greenstone belts or Proterozoic and Phanerozoic sedimentary rock sequences (e.g. Barley and Groves, ; Kerrich and Cassidy, ).